In one study on this effect, participants were more likely to rate food additives as being harmful when their names were difficult to say, as compared to when their names were easy to say.
Michael Pollan, author of best-selling book The Omnivore’s Dilemma said it so well when he told us to “beware foods whose ingredient names you can’t pronounce”. “Alpha-tocopherol”, “Ferric Sodium Pyrophosphate” and “Butylated Hydroxyanisol”, though all safe and approved by the US Food and Drug Association, don’t leave us with too much confidence as what’ll happen when we eat them.
This bias really all boils down to our innate desire for things we’re already familiar with. In a great study back in 1968, psychologist Robert Zajonc found the more we experience something, the more likely we are to like it.
So while the things we’re familiar with are often considered safe, new stimuli are associated with uncertainty and risk (Zajonc, 1980). If you think about it, we go through the familiarity bias all the time: when we make decisions on where to shop, what to buy when there, and whom to befriend and even date!
Familiarity is related to how easy we can process information. We find familiar things easier to process and understand than the unfamiliar. Further, social psychological research also finds that when we read a statement or message with ease, we tend to feel we’ve heard it before, therefore suggesting that it may be popular (e.g., Weaver, Garcia, Schwarz, & Miller, 2007). Given that human beings often “follow the herd” and believe in popular opinion for safety, it’s unsurprising that research shows that if we think of a statement as popular, it’s more likely to be accepted as true (e.g. Reber & Schwarz, 1999).
Our tendency to see difficult-to-process things as being riskier than those easily-understood has a number of product implications. Here are a few…
Effects of perceptual fluency on judgments of truth PDF (Reber & Schwarz, 1999)
Inferring the popularity of an opinion from its familiarity: A repetitive voice can sound like a chorus PDF (Weaver, Garcia, Schwarz & Miller, 2007)
Attitudinal effects of mere exposure PDF (Zajonc, 1968)
Feeling And Thinking: Preferences Need No Inferences PDF (Zajonc, 1980)